Data Handling

What is ‘risk of bias’ in a systematic review?

The last time you read a systematic literature review, you may have seen a graph that looked like traffic lights. The “traffic lights” graph in a systematic review report shows the risk of bias for each study that was reviewed. Bias is a systematic error that can lead to the wrong outcomes and conclusions. The …

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What I Wish I’d Known Before I Wrote My First Clinical Protocol

by Sumudu Narayana A clinical protocol is the framework of a trial, outlining how the trial will be conducted and providing all the necessary guidelines for the study team. Writing a research protocol for a clinical trial is an intricate and time-consuming process. It can also be a little daunting at first, especially coming from …

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Presenting your results effectively, part 1: using tables

The display items or illustrations of a scientific research manuscript are used to present the study results and consist of tables and figures. Figures can include graphs, photographs, drawings, medical scans, schematics, and charts. (In publishing, all illustrations are usually called “figures”.) Display items are generally used to present large amounts of data in a …

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Powerful Benefits of Using R to Analyze Your Research Data (and a Few Limitations)

You’ve painstakingly gathered data from 569 patients; 350 out of whom were receiving an experimental treatment. Now you need to estimate the average effect of this treatment. It’s time for some data analysis! Some may welcome this challenge, while others bristle at the thought of having to deal with complex calculations. Many researchers and students alike have …

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